3D Mosques

 

 

   Ahmet Hamdi Akseki Mosque

Ahmet Hamdi Akseki Camii is located next to the Directorate of Religious Affairs at Bilkent crossroads on Eskişehir road in Ankara.

The mosque the foundations of which were laid in 2008, was named after the 3rd President of Religious Affairs Ahmet Hamdi Akseki who lived from 1887 to 1951. The mosque was opened for worship on Friday, April 19, 2013.

The social complex of the mosque  consists of an 80.000 sq m closed area, 20.618 sq m courtyard and 11.087 sq m landscape.

The mosque where 5000 people can easily perform their prayers, is based on Seljuk design which is one of the most important symbols of Anatolian Seljuk architecture and 8 and 10-pointed Seljuk star has been used in various places.

The main dome of the mosque which is 33 m in diameter and rests on four elephant feet is one of the biggest domes in Turkey.

The entrance to the mosque is through 6 double-wing doors, two on the northern side and two each on the eastern and western sides.Besides this, the mosque can also be accessed from a three storey car park,4 flights of stairs and 6 lifts.The mosque courtyard can be reached from the ground floor by moving stairs and 3 lifts.

 It has an 8-pointed star and 4 minarets 66m in height.

The mimbar is mother of pearl inlaid.Calligraphy of the mosque has been done by calligrapher Hüseyin Kutlu.

 Sura Sham (1-7) verses are seen in the center of the dome. In these verses, Allah SWT draws our attention to the Sun, the Moon, the day,the night , the earth and the sky.”Vavs” at the beginning of suras are called “ wav-el-kassem” that is “vavs” used for swearing on Allah.

8 “çark-i felek” (swastika) arms decorated with Celi Sulus calligraphy style  consisting of teşbih (similes)  verses in the dome are different beauty.

Verses and hadiths on "Esmâü'l-Husnâ" and 99 beautiful names of Allah (c.c.) have been written in Celi Sulus calligraphy style.

Forty hadiths have been written with Celi Sulus calligraphy style on beams on all four sides of the mosque .

The northern crown gate is 5 m in height and eastern and western side entrances are 3.35 cm in height and are made of solid wood in “Kündekari” (old woodworking) technique without any nails or adhesive being used.

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   Sultanahmet Mosque

It is also known as the “Blue Mosque” due to its blue tiles. The mosque was built during the rule of Sultan Ahmed I in today’s Sultanahmed neighborhood of İstanbul and consists of  a madrasa, a section of the madrasa where how to read the Quran was taught, an elementary school,  tombs,a bazaar, shops, a bath,a hospital, a soup-kitchen and three public fountains.

 It was built by the architect Sedefkar Mehmed Ağa from 1609 to 1617. It is Turkey’s only  mosque with  6 minarets built by the order of a sultan.

The reason why the mosque has six minarets is that according to a story, Ahmed I was the sixth Sultan after the conquest of the city.

According to another story the mosque has six minarets not to exceed the seven minarets of the Ka'aba in Mecca.  

According to another story the then Sultan Ahmed I wanted the minarets to be gold but as the value of gold to be used in plating was more than the sultan’s budget, the architect of the mosque Sedefkâr Mehmet Ağa supposedly heard the order wrongly as “six” which is “altı” in Turkish instead of “gold” which is “altın” in Turkish and the mosque was built with six minarets.

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   Yeni (New) Mosque

Yeni Cami, meaning New Mosque; originally named the Valide Sultan Mosque is located in the Eminönü quarter of Istanbul next to the Spice Bazaar.

The mosque was designed as a külliye, a complex with adjacent structures. The complex consists of the Spice Bazaar, a primary school, a section of the madrasa where how to read the Quran was taught, two public fountains, tombs, and the sultan’s summer palace.The mosque crowns İstanbul’s sihouette as the most magnificent of seaside imperial mosques in İstanbul.

The construction of the mosque began in 1597 and the original architect was Davut Ağa . It was ordered by Sultana Safiye, who was the wife of Sultan Murad III and Valide Sultan (Queen Mother) of Sultan Mehmed III. Dalgıç Ahmed Çavuş replaced Davut Ağa as the architect of the mosque in 1598. The construction of the mosque that continued until 1603, was left half finished when Sultan Ahmed I’s ascended the Ottoman throne.

Sultana Hatice Turhan, mother of Sultan Mehmed IV ordered the construction to resume in 1661.The construction of the mosque was completed 66 years later by chief architect Mustafa Ağa in 1663 during the reign of Sultan Mehmed IV.

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   Pertevniyal Valide Sultan Mosque

 

It is located at the intersection of Fatih-Aksaray districts of İstanbul and was built by the order of Sultana Pertevniyal, mother of Sultan Abdülaziz.

Construction work began in 1869, and the mosque was finished in 1871.

It was designed by the Italian architect Montani. 

The mosque was designed as a külliye, a complex consisting of a small building in the courtyard of the mosque where an offical determined prayer times, a public fountain, tombs, a fountain, a library and schools.Two minarets consisting of  a balcony each were built in the additional building separately from the mosque.

 The historical mosque is one in which decoration and ornaments have been used the most among other mosques in İstanbul.We see that the influence of the then Western architecture has been blended with 16th or 17th century decoration technique.Gilded hand-drawn ornaments in which the blue color is dominant are elements that come to the fore in architecturel design.The interior and exterior walls of the mosque are made of marble ornamented with motifs and inscriptions . The marble mihrab (niche indicating the direction of the Qiblah for prayer) and minbar (a raised platform in the front area of a mosque, from which the imam delivers sermons or speeches) are unimposing.

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  Şehzadebaşı Mosque

Şehdaze mosque is located in Şehzadebaşı district in Eminönü in İstanbul. The mosque was designed as a külliye, a complex consisting of a madrasa, an elementary school, a guesthose for the poor and homeless,a stable, a caravansary, a small building in the courtyard of the mosque where an offical determined prayer times and tombs.

The mosque was built by the imperial architect Sinan to commemorate Ottoman Sultan Süleyman the Magnificent ‘s  son Şehzade Mehmed  upon his early death.

Sinan,the great architect during the reign of Sultan Süleyman the Magnificent and when the Ottoman Empire experienced its brighest era, built the mosque in four years from 1544-1548. Sinan the Architect personally said that “he experienced his apprenticeship in Şehzade Mosque, his foremanship in Suleymaniye Mosque and his mastership in Selimiye Mosque”.Şehzade Mosque is the first step of three monuments that made up the three main phases of  Sinan’s  architectural genius.

The 18,42 m dome is flanked by 4 half-domes. The courtyard with an ablution fountain at the center has 12 columns, 16 domes and a pair of minarets with two balconies.

The mosque has seven tombs.These are Şehzade Mehmet’s tomb, Grand vizier Rüştem Pasha’s tomb, Şehzade Mahmut’s tomb,Sultana Hatice’s tomb, Damat İbrahim Pasha’s tomb and Destari Mustafa Pasha’s tomb.

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  Fatih Mosque

It is the only mosque complex built by the order of a sultan after the conquest of İstanbul.

Fatih mosque was built by the order of Sultan Mehmet the Conqueror in Fatih district of İstanbul.The construction of Fatih mosque started in 1467 and was completed in 1470. As the mosque was completely destroyed by an eartquake in 1766, Sultan Mustafa III had it repaired by the architect Mehmed Tahir Ağa from 1767 and 1771.

Fatih Mosque represents an important stage in the development of Turkish architecture among Üç Şerefeli Mosque  (mosque with a minaret with three balconies) in Edirne, Beyazıt and Süleymaniye Mosques.

The most important characteristic of Fatih Mosque is that it was built at the center of a big külliye, complex. Fatih Mosque is the largest mosque after Hagia Sophia and the complex was built by the royal architect Sinaüddin Yusuf bin Abdullah known as Atik Sinan (Azıtlı Sinan).

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  Beyazıt Mosque

Bayezid mosque is located in the Beyazıt Square in Beyazıt district of İstanbul.It was commissioned by Sultan Bayezid II. The construction of the mosque started in 1500 and was completed in 1505.

 Bayezid Mosque is the first example of classical Ottoman style. Although little is known about  the architect of the külliye, complex consisting of a madrasa, a bath, a caravarsary, a soup-kitchen, a guesthose for the poor and homeless and an elementary school, it is believed that the complex was built by the architect Hayreddin or architect Kemaleddin. Recent research has indicated that it could have also been built by the architect Yakupşah bin Sultanşah.

Tombs are located in a space facing the Qiblah.Thees are the tombs of  Sultan Bayezid II, his daughter Selçuk Hatun and Mustafa Reşit Pasha-the architect of Tanzimat Fermanı (Imperial Edict of Reorganization).

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  Rüstem Pasha Mosque

Rüstem Pasha Mosque is located in Hasırcılar Çarşısı (Strawmat Weavers Market) near the Spice Bazaar in the Tahtakale district in Eminönü, İstanbul. The mosque is one of the most important structures that crowns İstanbul’s sihouette .

The mosque was designed for grand vizier Rüstem Pasha, the then state dignitary who contributed to the construction of Süleymaniye Mosque. Grand vizier Rüstem Pasha who was the son-in law of Sultan Süleyman the Magnificent was known for buildings that he commissioned in many parts of the empire. Construction of the mosque was completed by his wife Sultana Mihrimah after Rüstem Pasha’s death in 1561. 

Rüstem Pasha Mosque is famous for its location in the city, magnificent structure and exquisite tile ornaments among mosques built by the great architect Sinan. Tiles set in tulip designs in particular are one of most successful examples of Ottoman art of tile making.

The mosque was significantly damaged  in a fire in 1660 and an earthquake in 1776 and its dome and minaret that were destroyed in the earthquake were restored. The structure that was repaired by the Directorate General of  Foundations from 1960 to 1961 and 1964 to 1969, once again underwent substantial repairs from 1992 to 1995.

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  Nurosmaniye Moschee

Die Nurosmaniye Moschee ist eine große und schöne Moschee, die in Eminönü in einem nach ihr benannten Stadtteil zwischen Çemberlitaş, Kapalıçarşı (Großer Basar) und Çağaloğlu liegt… Von den zwei Toren ihres Außenhofs öffnet sich eine zum Großen Basar und das andere zu Çemberlitaş.

Die Moschee, die das erste und größte Bauwerk der türkischen Barock-Architektur ist, bietet auch mit ihrem halbkreisförmigen Innenhof ohne Shadirvan, mit ihrer Gebetsnische (Mihrab), welche sich von anderen Moscheen unterscheidet, mit ihrer riesigen auf zwölf Säulen errichteten Kuppel mit einem Durchmesser von 26 Meter, mit ihren anmutigen Minaretten, mit ihren schönen Kalligraphien, ihren seltenen Handschriften und mit ihrer Bibliothek was für das Auge.

Der Bau der Nurosmaniye Moschee wurde während der Zeit von Sultan Mahmud I. in 1748 begonnen. Nach dessen Tod wurde der Bau unter Sultan Osman III. fortgesetzt und in 1755 abgeschlossen. Die Aufschriften der Moschee tragen jene Zeiten in unsere Gegenwart. Die Moschee, die „Nur-ı Osmani” genannt wurde, was die Bedeutung hat „Das Licht der Osmanen”, ist auch unter dem Namen Osmaniye Moschee bekannt. Der Architekt der Moschee ist Mustafa Ağa und sein Geselle ist Simon.  

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  Mihrimah Sultan Mosque

Construction of the mosque complex that Sultan Süleyman the Magnificent ordered to be built for his daughter Sultana Mihrimah started in the early 1540s and according to mosque inscription it was completed in 954 (1547). The complex which is one of the important structures built at the same time as Şehzade (Prince) külliye (complex)  by  Sinan the Architect  after he became the chief architect, consists of a mosque, a madrasa, an elementary school,a soup-kitchen, a guesthose for the poor and homeless, waterways near the inn, a fountain, a reservoir and a water closet.

Afterwards, two tombs and most probably two baths and a wooden summer palace and a small building in the courtyard of the mosque where an offical determined prayer times depicted in engravings were added to the complex but among these the soup-kitchen, the guesthose for the poor and homeless,the inn,the summer palace and the building in the courtyard of the mosque where an offical determined prayer times were destroyed in the course of time and the two baths rendering services until recently were converted to a store and lost its characteristics.

The ablution fountain  placed in a palace that sits on columns is an exquisite example of the then stonemasonry.Water was brought from Bağlarbaşı and İcadiye by building waterways.One of these waterways reached the complex via today’s Cumhuriyet Road and the other via northern hillsides of Sultantepe and Paşalimani Road and it is estimated that Sultana Mihrimah Fountain was added to one of these waterways in 1092 (1681). Mihr-î Mah means the Sun and Moon.

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  Ortaköy Mosque

Ortaköy Mosque known as Büyük Mecidiye Mosque is a mosque in the Neo-Baroque style situated in Beşiktaş district in Istanbul, at the waterside of the Ortaköy pier square, one of the most popular locations on the Bosphorus.

The mosque was ordered by Sultan Abdülmecid and built by the architect Nigoğos Baylan in 1853. The mosque which is an elegant structure is in the Baroque style.

It is situated in a unique place on the Bosphorus.Like all mosques built by the order of sultans, it consists of a sanctuary and sultan’s section.Wide and high windows have been arranged to receive changeable lights of the Bosphorus.

A staircase leads into the mosque that has two minarets with a balcony. Its walls have been made of  white cut stone. There are pink mosaics on the walls of the single dome. The mihrab (niche indicating the direction of the Qiblah for prayer) is made of mosaics and marble and minbar (a raised platform in the front area of a mosque, from which the imam delivers sermons or speeches) is made of porphyry marble and is the product of fine workmanship.

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  Kılıç Ali Pasha Mosque

Kılıç Ali Pasha Külliye (complex)  was built on the orders of Sultan Abdülmecid  by Sinan the Architect in 1581 at Tophane Square . It consists of a mosque, a tomb, a public fountain, a madrasa and a bath.

 The mosque which is the main element of the complex is situated at the center of a courtyard.The area around the courtyard has lost its original style due to roadwork in 1956 and the walls of the courtyard were moved back. The narthex is covered with five domes and a lead coated porch covers the narthex. The central dome of the mosque that has a rectangular plan  is 12.70 metres in diameter and is carried on pendentives on granite piers and a drum with windows. The mosque thought to be a developed example of architectural style of Hagia Sophia, has been ornamented with İznik tiles that reflect 16th century workmanship .The mosque is lit by a total of 147 windows including the 24 of the central dome.A 16th-century historical ship lamp that used to illuminate the mosque was taken to be displayed at the Naval Museum of Ottoman and Turkish Naval History in 1948.

The minaret of the mosque with one balcony was restored in the 19th century and baroque style ornaments were used in the minaret.

There is an octagonal tomb made of cut stone at the outer courtyard overlooking the sea.This tomb belongs to Kılıç Ali Pasha.

Another structure overlooking the sea is a square plan madrasa consisting of 18 cells. The domed structure to the right of the mosque is the bath.

It is believed that fountains on the walls of the courtyard are part of the mosque complex.

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   Şemsi Pasha Mosque

Şemsi Pasha Mosque is located at the seaside in Şemsi Pasha district and on Şemsi Pasha Road.

The courtyard has two gates, one facing the park where there used to be TEKEL company buildings and the other facing the sea.There are no inscriptions on these gates made of cut coping stone. There are classical barred windows on the walls of the courtyard. When  we enter through the gate facing the park, we see a small burial area on the right side and a place where ablution is performed on the left side. The northern and eastern sides of the courtyard have been surrounded by an L-shaped madrasa.The shrine was built by Sinan the Architect in 988 (1580). The square, single dome of the mosque is lead coated.The dome stands on an octagonal drum. 

The four sides of the dome have been consolidated with semidomes in the corners.The drum is pierced with four windows .

The narthex of the mosque and its right side is surrounded by a portico that stands on a marble column.The portico is flat.

There is a four verse inscription on the main arched gate made of cut stone .     

The door of the minaret is to the right of this gate, the arch of which is made of white and red marble.This small shrine has lower and upper windows and the upper windows are adorned with colored glass.It looks beautiful. 

Semi domes and the marble mihrab (niche indicating the direction of the Qiblah for prayer) have stalactite carvings. The minbar (a raised platform in the front area of a mosque, from which the imam delivers sermons or speeches) made afterwards is wooden. The interior of the mosque is free from decoration such as tiles and hand-drawing. An iron grille has been placed in the large window of the tomb to the right overlooking the central part of the mosque.There are niches on both sides of this large window.Verses have been written in good handwriting in the center of the dome and on the drum.The minaret on the right is made of cut stone like the shrine  and there are stalactite carvings below its balcony.  The minaret stands on the main structure and southwest corner.of the mosque.

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   Hacı Bayram-ı Veli Mosque

Hacı Bayram-ı Veli Mosque was built two years before the death of Hacı Bayram-I Veli in 831 (427-28). There is no information about the first architect of the  structure which was repaired many times.

 Hacı Bayram-ı Veli Mosque has a stone base, brick walls, a tile roof and its north-east section has a square plan.There is a 437 sq m usage area on its basement and a 263 sq m usage area in the gathering –place above.

To the south of the structure is the tomb of Hacı Bayram-I Veli and to the east is the Augustus temple.There is an arched door with rectangular stones that slid from the axis toward the north.To the north of this door, another door in the narthex leads to a room where dervishes retired into seclusion.The most interesting facade of the structure is the west facade which was originally built as a narthex but was then covered with walls and converted into a nave. There are two inscriptions to the right and left of the arch on the south facade of the second stage which was added afterwards to the sanctuary of the two-stage west facade.These inscriptions , one in Turkish and the other in Arabic give information about repairs carried out in 1714.

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